Tag Archives: Russell

HCJ TWO: Marx

Karl Marx (1818-1883) is generally considered as the man who claimed to have made Socialism scientific. HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF THE PERIOD (‘Age of Revolutions’) Marx wrote at a time of political and economic change. The Revolutions of 1848 (also known … Continue reading

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HCJ TWO: Hegel and Schopenhauer

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) is described by Bertrand Russell as ‘the culmination of the movement in German philosophy that started from Kant.’ Russell argues that although Hegel often criticised Kant, his system ‘could never have arisen’ if Kant’s had not … Continue reading

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HCJ TWO: Empiricism: Locke to Hume

Philosophical Liberalism In his book A History of Western Philosophy Russell describes early liberalism as a product of England and Holland that stood for religious toleration. This is because it valued commerce and industry, and favoured the rising middle class … Continue reading

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HCJ TWO: Seminar Paper: Empiricism and Rationalism in the 17th and 18th centuries: Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz

Western philosophy in the 17th and 18th centuries is divided between British empiricism and continental rationalism. These theories are concerned with Epistemology (philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge). Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza were rationalists. … Continue reading

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History and Context: Hobbes, Machiavelli and The Godfather

Hobbes Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (1588-1679) was an empiricist, like Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, but unlike them, he was an admirer of mathematical method. He was a man suspected of atheism and he is described by Russell, in A History … Continue reading

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